Controlling factors and physical property cutoffs of the tight reservoir in the Liuhe Basin

Zhaozhao Tan, Weiming Wang, Wenhao Li, Shuangfang Lu, Taohua He

Abstract view|326|times       PDF download|173|times


Tight gas sandstone reservoirs of the Lower Cretaceous Xiahuapidianzi Formation are the main exploration target in the Liuhe Basin in China. Petrology characteristics, reservoir space (pore space), controlling factors and physical property cutoffs of the tight sandstone reservoir in the Liuhe Basin were determined through the integrated analysis of several methods including: casting thin section, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction, mercury intrusion porosimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance and nitrogen gas adsorption. The sandstones dominated by lithic arkoses and feldspathic litharenites are characterized by low porosity, low permeability and strong microscopic heterogeneity. The porosity has a range between 0.48% and 4.80%, with an average of 2.26%. Intercrystalline pores, intergranular pores, dissolved pores and microfractures can be observed through the casting thin section and FE-SEM images. Compaction and carbonate cementation are the two primary mechanisms resulting in the low porosity of the Liuhe sandstones. Microfractures improve the permeability of the tight sandstones and provide pathways for fluid migration and the storage of hydrocarbon accumulations. Moreover, the theoretical cutoff of the porosity in the Xiahuapidianzi Formation tight sandstones is 3.3%.

Cited as: Tan, Z., Wang, W., Li, W., et al. Controlling factors and physical property cutoffs of the tight reservoir in the Liuhe Basin. Advances in Geo-Energy Research, 2017, 1(3): 190-202, doi: 10.26804/ager.2017.03.06


Reservoir space, controlling factors of physical properties, physical property cutoffs, water film, tight reservoir

Full Text:



Abdolmaleki, J., Tavakoli, V., Asadi-Eskandar, A. Sedimen-tological and diagenetic controls on reservoir properties in the Permian-Triassic successions of Western Persian Gulf, Southern Iran. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 2016, 141: 90-113.

Ajdukiewicz, J.M., Lander, R.H. Sandstone reservoir quality prediction: The state of the art. Aapg Bull. 2010, 94(8): 1083-1091.

Anders, M.H., Laubach, S.E., Scholz, C.H. Microfractures: A review. J. Struct. Geol. 2014, 69: 377-394.

Aretz, A., B ¨ar, K., G ¨otz, A.E., et al. Outcrop analogue study of Permocarboniferous geothermal sandstone reservoir formations (northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany): Impact of mineral content, depositional environment and diagenesis on petrophysical properties. Int. J. Earth Sci. 2016, 105(5): 1431-1452.

Bao, C. Nature gas geoscience. Beijing, Science press, 1988.

(in Chinese) Beard, D.C., Weyl, P.K. Influence of texture on porosity and permeability of unconsolidated sand. Aapg Bull. 1973, 57(2): 349-369.

Bjørlykke, K., Jahren, J. Open or closed geochemical systems during diagensis in sedimentary basins: Constraints on mass transfer during diagenesis and the prediction of porosity in sandstone and carbonate reservoirs. Aapg Bull. 2012, 96(12): 2193-2214.

Bohr, J., Wogelius, R.A., Morris, P.M., et al. Thickness and structure of the water film deposited from vapour on calcite surfaces. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 2010, 74(21): 5985-5999.

Brunauer, S., Emmett, P.H., Teller, E. Adsorption of gases in multimolecular layers. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1938, 60(2): 309-319.

Chatterjee, R., Gupta, S.D., Farooqui, M.Y. Application of nuclear magnetic resonance logs for evaluating low-resistivity reservoirs: A case study from the Cambay basin, India. J. Geophys. Eng. 2012, 9(5): 595.

Chatterjee, R., Gupta, S.D., Farroqui, M.Y. Reservoir identi-fication using full stack seismic inversion technique: a case study from Cambay basin oilfields, India. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 2013, 109(5): 87-95.

Chatterjee, R., Gupta, S.D., Mandal, P.P. Fracture and stress orientation from borehole image logs: A case study from Cambay basin, India. J. Geol. Soc. India 2017, 89(5): 573-580.

Chen, Y., Wei, L., Mastalerz, M., et al. The effect of analytical particle size on gas adsorption porosimetry of shale. Int. J. Coal. Geol. 2015, 138: 103-112.

Derjaguin, B.V., Churaev, N.V. Structural component of disjoining pressure. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 1974, 49(2): 249-255.

Dickson, J.A.D. Carbonate identification and genesis as revealed by staining. J. Sediment. Pet. 1966, 36(2): 491-505.

Dutton, S.P., Loucks, R.G. Diagenetic controls on evolution of porosity and permeability in lower Tertiary Wilcox sandstones from shallow to ultradeep (200-6700 m) burial, Gulf of Mexico Basin, U.S.A. Mar. Pet. Geol. 2010, 27(1): 69-81.

Folk, R.L. Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks. Austin, USA, Hemphill Publishing Company, 1980.

Gao, G., Shen, X., Han, Y.L. The physical properties, lowest limit values in sandstone conducting system and their affections to oil accumulation in the setting of low porosity and permeability: Taking chang (4+5) and chang 6 sections of yanchang formation in hujianshan area of ordos. Geological Journal of China Universities 2010, 16(3): 351-357. (in Chinese)

Ge, X., Fan, Y., Xiao, Y., et al. Quantitative evaluation of the heterogeneity for tight sand based on the nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng. 2017, 38: 74-80.

Gee, M.L., Healy, T.W., White, L.R. Hydrophobicity effects in the condensation of water films on quartz. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 1990, 140(2): 450-465.

He, C.Z., Hua, M.Q. The water film thickness in hydrocarbon reservoirs. Petroleum Exploration and Development 1998, 25: 75-77. (in Chinese)

Hillier, S. Quantitative analysis of clay and other minerals in sandstones by XRay powder diffraction (XRPD). Clay Miner. Cem. Sandstones 2003, 34: 213-251.

Lai, J., Wang, G., Chai, Y., et al. Depositional and diagenetic controls on pore Structure of tight Gas sandstone reservoirs: Evidence from lower Cretaceous Bashijiqike Formation in Kelasu Thrust Belts, Kuqa depression in Tarim Basin of West China. Resour. Geol. 2015, 65(2): 55-75.

Lai, J., Wang, G., Fan, Z., et al. Fracture detection in oil-based drilling mud using a combination of borehole image and sonic logs. Mar. Pet. Geol. 2017, 84: 195-214.

Lan, C., Yang, M., Zhang, Y. Impact of sequence stratigraphy, depositional facies and diagenesis on reservoir quality: A case study on the Pennsylvanian Taiyuan sandstones, northeastern Ordos Basin, China. Mar. Pet. Geol. 2016, 69: 216-230.

Li, W.H., Zhang, Z., Zan, L., et al. Lower limits of physical properties and their controlling factors of effective coarse-grained clastic reservoirs in the Shahejie Formation on northern steep slope of Bonan subsag, the Bohai Bay Basin. Oil & Gas Geology 2012, 332(s3-4): 271-277. (in Chinese)

Liu, Z., Liu, J.J., Wang, W. Experimental analyses on critical conditions of oil charge for low-permeability sandstones: a case study of Xifeng oilfield, Ordos Basin. Acta Petrolei Sinica 2012, 33: 996-1002. (in Chinese)

Maast, T.E., Jahren, J., Bjrlykke, K. Diagenetic controls on reservoir quality in Middle to Upper Jurassic sandstones in the South Viking Graben, North Sea. Aapg Bull. 2011, 95(11): 1937-1958.

Moore, D.M., Reynolds, R.C. X-ray Diffraction and the Identification and Aanalysis of Clay Minerals. Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press, 1989.

Morad, S., Ketzer, J.M., Ros, L.F.D. Spatial and temporal distribution of diagenetic alterations in siliciclastic rocks: Implications for mass transfer in sedimentary basins. Sedimentology 2000, 47(s1): 95-120.

Nishiyama, N., Yokoyama, T. Does the reactive surface area of sandstone depend on water saturation?-The role of reactive-transport in water film. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 2013, 122: 153-169.

Ou, C.G., Chen, W., Ma, Z.G. Quantitative identification and analysis of Sub-Seismic extensional structure system: Technique schemes and processes. J. Geophys. Eng. 2015, 12(3): 502-514.

Paxton, S.T., Szabo, J.O., Ajdukiewicz, J.M., et al. Construc-tion of an intergranular volume compaction curve for evaluating and predicting compaction and porosity loss in rigid-grain sandstone reservoirs. Aapg Bull. 2002, 86(12): 2047-2067.

Shan, X.L., Xie, X.T., Ren, Y. Meso-Cenozoic unconventional hydrocarbon resources in eastern Jilin and prospect of development. World Geology 2013, 32(1): 77-83. (in Chinese)

Staszczuk, P. Studies of silica gel surface wetting phenomena by means of controlled-rate thermal analysis. Colloid Surf. A 1995, 105(2-3): 291-303.

Taylor, T.R., Giles, M.R., Hathon, L.A., et al. Sandstone diagenesis and reservoir quality prediction: Models, myths, and reality. Aapg Bull. 2010, 94(8): 1093-1132.

Tobin, R.C., McClain, T., Lieber, R.B., et al. Reservoir quality modeling of tight-gas sands in Wamsutter Field: Integration of diagenesis, petroleum systems, and production. Aapg Bull. 2010, 94(8): 1229-1266.

Tokunaga, T.K. Physicochemical controls on adsorbed water film thickness in unsaturated geological media. Water Resour. Res. 2011, 47(8): W08514. Wang, D.C., Zhang, R.Q., Shi, Y.H. The Basis of Hydroge-ology. Beijing, Geological Publishing House, 2006. (in Chinese)

Wang, J., Cao, Y.C., Gao, Y.J., et al. Petrophysical parameter cutoff and controlling factors of effective reservoir of red beds sandbodies of Paleogene in Dongying depression. Journal of Jilin University (Earth Science Edition) 2011, 35(4): 27-33. (in Chinese)

Wang, P.F., Jiang, Z.X., Ji, W., et al. Heterogeneity of intergranular, intraparticle and organic pores in Longmaxi shale in Sichuan Basin, South China: Evidence from SEM digital images and fractal and multifractal geometries. Mar. Pet. Geol. 2016a, 72: 122-138.

Wang, Y., Liu, J., Wang, W., et al. The research on the determination of the porosity limitation of the low permeability sandstone reservoirs by the water film thickness. Petrochemical Industry Application 2012, 31: 13-16. (in Chinese)

Wu, K.J, Liu, L.F, Xu, Z.J., et al. Lower limits of pore throat radius, porosity and permeability for tight oil accumulations in the Chang7 Member, Ordos Basin. Petroleum Geology & Experiment 2016b, 38: 63-69. (in Chinese)

Xu, H.L., Fan, C.Y., Gao, X.J. Early Cretaceous prototype restoration of the basin group in eastern Jilin. Global Geology 2013, 32(2): 263-272. (in Chinese)

Yao, Y., Liu, D., Che, Y., et al. Petrophysical characterization of coals by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Fuel 2010, 89(7): 1371-1380.

Zhang, L.C., Lu, S.F., Xiao, D.S., et al. Characterization of full pore size distribution and its significance to macroscopic physical parameters in tight glutenites. J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng. 2017, 38: 434-449.

Zhang, X.Q., Dai, Z., Liu, L., et al. Application of theory of water film reform the reservoir in tight and permeability sandstone. Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 1998, 18(s1): 161-163. (in Chinese)

Zhou, Y., Ji, Y., Zhang, S., et al. Controls on reservoir quality of lower cretaceous tight sandstones in the Laiyang Sag, Jiaolai Basin, Eastern China: Integrated sedimentologic, diagenetic and microfracturing data. Mar. Pet. Geol. 2016, 76: 26-50.

Zhu, R.K., Xia, Z., Liu, L.H., et al. Depositional system and favorable reservoir distribution of Xujiahe Formation in Sichuan Basin. Pet. Explor. Dev. 2009, 36(1): 46-55.

Zou, C.N., Zhu, R.K., Bai, B., et al. First discovery of nano-pore throat in oil and gas reservoir in China and its scientific value. Acta Petrolei Sinica 2011, 27(6): 1857-1864. (in Chinese)


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 The Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Copyright ©2018. All Rights Reserved